More about Bufferbloat

Read more about various details of Smart Queue Management here:

Why does SQM work so well?

Why do cake, fq_codel, PIE, etc. and other qdisc’s work so well? These smart queue management (SQM) algorithms put each flow’s traffic into its own queue. (A “flow” is typically defined as traffic from a single IP addresses/port to another address/port.) Then the qdisc makes sure that none of the queues get “too long”. To do this, the qdisc looks at all the queues, and preferentially chooses to send packets from flows that have no/small queue. If the queue for a flow gets large, the qdisc can mark traffic with ECN, or drop a certain percentage of those packets to allow congestion avoidance to kick in for that flow. (The various queue management algorithms use different metrics to make these transmit/drop decisions, avoid starvation, etc.)

For a simple description of fq_codel, read Bufferbloat and the Ski Shop

For lots more details about the CoDel (and fq_codel) algorithm, see the Codel wiki at:

What’s wrong with simply configuring QoS?

Quality of Service (QoS) settings will help, but won’t solve bufferbloat completely. Why not? Any prioritization scheme works by pushing certain packets to the head of the queue, so they’re transmitted first. Packets farther back in the queue still must be sent eventually. New traffic that hasn’t been prioritized gets added to the end of the queue, and waits behind those previously queued packets. QoS settings don’t have any way to inform the big senders that they’re sending too fast/too much, so packets from those flows simply accumulate, increasing delay for all.

Furthermore, you can spend a lot of time updating priorities, setting up new filters, and checking to see whether VoIP, gaming, ssh, netflix, torrent, etc. are “balanced”. (There is a whole cottage industry in updating WonderShaper rule sets. They all have terrible flaws, and they don’t help a lot.) Worst of all, these rules create a maintenance hassle. Each new rule has to be adjusted in the face of new kinds of traffic. And if the router changes, or speed changes, or there’s new traffic in the mix, then they need to be adjusted again.

Setting up a Router Manually

If you can’t get SQM/fq_codel in your router, your strategy should be to adjust the settings to control queue lengths first, then think about QoS. To do this:

  1. Remove all the QoS/Prioritization rules.
  2. Control the amount of data queued. If your router supports BQL in the kernel and some kind of SQM/qdisc, such as fq_codel, PIE, etc., make sure they are enabled. In general, no configuration is required at all. These changes are available in modern Linux kernels, the OpenWrt and CeroWrt routers, and a growing number of other devices. This one change automatically sets up the router to work well:
    • Small flows of data (pings, DNS, ssh sessions, gaming, VoIP, SYN/Ack messages for TCP/web traffic, etc.) go right through with minimal delay
    • Large flows (Netflix, file uploads/downloads, filesharing, etc) automatically adjust their rates
    • All traffic gets a fair share of the bottleneck traffic capacity
  3. Measure. Try to detect if all your data types/flows are as responsive as you like. We often find that there is no need for further configuration because the fq_codel algorithm does such a good job of giving priority to the flows that aren’t sending much data.
  4. If you can determine that some traffic needs to priority, then set up some QoS rules. The number of rules will probably be small, perhaps only applying to a couple specific traffic types.
  5. And finally… If prioritization/QoS doesn’t solve the problem, it may be necessary to get more bandwidth. When SQM is in place, the need for prioritization typically arises when there’s already too much data to send on a long-term basis. Creating the rules simply determines which packets go to the head of the queue, and which will be sent later. If there is regularly more data than traffic capacity, QoS doesn’t really help.
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