In the discussions on bufferbloat so far, an astounding number of papers have been referenced:

Motorola has a very clear management level presentation on the need for fair queuing

Read the slides starting with “If RED is not good enough, what is?”.

Netalyzr: Illuminating The Edge Network
As outlined in the IMC Netalyzr paper section 5.2, the structure you see is very useful to see what buffer sizes and provisioned bandwidths are common. The diagonal lines indicate the latency (in seconds!) caused by the buffering. Both wired and wireless Netalyzer data are mixed in the above plots. The structure shows common buffer sizes that are sometimes as large as a megabyte. Note that there are times that Netalyzr may have been under-detecting and/or underreporting the buffering, particularly on faster links; the Netalyzr group have been improving its buffer test.

Battling Bufferbloat

Fast Object-Based data transfer System (FOBS)

Simple Available Bandwidth Utilization Library (SABUL)

Reliable Blast UDP (RBUDP)

Bittorrent Broadnets - with buffers of 20-40 packets (32-64 KB buffers). As soon as the common uplink saturated, everything went to heck

Comcast’s kill bittorrent ‘solution’ did only target uploads

Flow Splitting with Fate Sharing in a Next-Generation Transport Services Architecture - also available on arXiv

Optimization of TCP/IP Traffic Across Shared ADSL

Understanding Bandwidth-Delay-Product in wireless mesh networks

Characterizing Residential Broadband Networks

Buffer Bloat Calculations

RAQM (REMOTE Active Queue Management
h2. More unsorted papers

Marina Thottan has been very kind to send me pointers to recent work on router buffer sizing. As you will see, there are good reasons to believe much conventional wisdom is far from the mark.

She is co-author of a survey paper that covers work done by different groups on router buffer sizing. Here is a link to it:

Nick Mckeown @ Stanford has several talks on buffers for routers.
Here is the link to his web page:

The specific talks are on this page:
“Internet Routers: Past Present and Future.”
“Buffers: How we fell in love with them, and why we need a divorce.”
“Sizing Router Buffers”
“Network Processors and their memory”
“Designing Packet Buffers for Internet Routers”
“Memories for Internet Routers”

TCP Veno papers


Veno And RED

Fluid based modeling of Veno

Bad, outdated advice (should be corrected in the field)

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Bufferbloat Related Projects

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Network Performance Related Resources

Jim Gettys' Blog - The chairman of the Fjord
Toke's Blog - Karlstad University's work on bloat
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Candelatech - A wifi testing company that "gets it".