What if we started with the idea that we wanted to use more protocols than just a port 80 and 433 of tcp, and port 53 of udp, that we’ve been able to effectively NAT? Hip, PIM, IGMP, sctp, dccp, udp-lite, rtp, multicast, name it, it could all get tested now, and made to work with ipv6, at the very least. We could share networks, and deploy different solutions, if only we had a base to start with that didn’t start with the assumptions of ipv4 + nat.

So I sat down one day last year (june, 2011), and tried to design a firewall architecture that did ipv6 first, and treated NAT as an afterthought, allowing for security within a home, but a nearly default free zone to share with guests. Part of it is the device naming scheme, and the other part is the limited pattern matching facility in iptables (the “+” symbol for a tail match). I’d also hoped to get to where upnp and pcp could be made to work correctly, and sanely.

The big goal was to have a firewall that never had to reload its rules (and break connection tracking among other things). With the rise of highly dynamic ipv6 addressing and prefix distribution it would be nice to have the firewall just successfully add and subtract addresses without ever having to reload. Unfortunately doing that easily requires mangling interface names into one scheme to rule them all, which does not play well with naming vlans (eth0.2) or various virtual tunneled interfaces (ipv6-vtun), etc. Presently in most firewalling systems devices are named after their function, not their level of security.

I’ve not got a chance to finish CeroWall, and coping with 15 years of accumulated cruft around nat - port forwarding, menu driven guis, zillions of useful features, and user preconceptions, and my own workload! seems to make it unlikely I will. Perhaps nftables will make it easier, but it breaks the + syntax in favor of doing vmaps.

But this is as far as I had got a few years back.

The logic is easy to parse. With 6 interfaces it’s about 1/10th as complex as what openwrt generates, and the rules are sorted by frequency of protocol, so they are very fast. And all protocols are supported out of the box, except for ipv4 on the natted interface. And due to the pattern match, the rules never need to be taken down and reloaded, you just create a named interface that fits the rule.

The rules work. I use them, in the lab. Where I don’t have to deal with nat.

IPv6 section


ip6tables -t mangle -F
ip6tables -F

ip6tables -N F_TCP
ip6tables -N F_UDP
ip6tables -N F_ICMP
ip6tables -N F_LAN

# Generic Rules against ingress to the home secure zone

ip6tables -A F_TCP -p tcp -m multiport ! --ports 139,445,81 -j ACCEPT
ip6tables -A F_TCP -j REJECT

ip6tables -A F_UDP -p udp -m multiport ! --ports 137,138 -j ACCEPT
ip6tables -A F_UDP -j REJECT

ip6tables -A F_ICMP -j ACCEPT

ip6tables -A F_LAN -p tcp -g F_TCP
ip6tables -A F_LAN -p udp -g F_UDP
ip6tables -A F_LAN -p icmpv6 -g F_ICMP
ip6tables -A F_LAN -p 0 -j ACCEPT

ip6tables -A FORWARD ! -i s+ -o s+ -g F_LAN
ip6tables -A FORWARD -j ACCEPT

# Don't allow anyone from the internet to access samba or conf on the router

ip6tables -I INPUT -p tcp ! -i s+ -m multiport --ports 139,445,81 -j REJECT

# Grey areas
# SNMP should be blocked

# Classification

The IPv4 rules are nearly identical, but I never got around to finishing the nat side


[ -s "$MASQ" ] && iptables -t nat -F
iptables -t mangle -F
iptables -F

iptables -N F_TCP
iptables -N F_UDP
iptables -N F_ICMP
iptables -N F_LAN

# Generic Rules against ingress to the secure zone

iptables -A F_TCP -p tcp -m multiport ! --ports 139,445,81 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A F_TCP -j REJECT

iptables -A F_UDP -p udp -m multiport ! --ports 137,138 -j ACCEPT
iptables -A F_UDP -j REJECT

iptables -A F_ICMP -j ACCEPT

#no workie
#iptables -A MASQ -i $MASQ -o ! $MASQ -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
#iptables -A MASQ ! -i $MASQ -o $MASQ -j ACCEPT

iptables -A F_LAN -p tcp -g F_TCP
iptables -A F_LAN -p udp -g F_UDP
iptables -A F_LAN -p icmp -g F_ICMP
iptables -A F_LAN -p 0 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A FORWARD ! -i s+ -o s+ -g F_LAN

# Don't allow anyone from the internet to access samba on the router

iptables -I INPUT -p tcp ! -i s+ -m multiport --ports 139,445,81 -j REJECT

# But I've never finished the nat rules

if [ -s $MASQ ]
   iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o $MASQ -j MASQUERADE
   iptables -A FORWARD -j ACCEPT

Routing ipv6 with ipv4 natted interfaces

It is impossible at present to detect if nat is on an interface. CeroWrt assumes that ge00 is natted, and that there is nobody listening for ipv6 routes on the outside interface. In Bloatlab 1, that’s not the case, and uncommenting the ge00 interface in /etc/config/babel, and prepending these two lines here to the /etc/babeld.conf file

out if ge00 ip deny
in if ge00 ip deny

Lets the internal ipv6 routes ‘escape’ onto the same switch ge00 is on, but not the natted ipv4 routes.

That switch in my case, has a dozen+ machines and router on it. It’s darn useful to be able to share that wire. Nearly every machine in the lab is capable of routing (both with babel native and quagga-re), and if one is down, the next best one takes over.

You’ll note, incidentally, that opening up ge00 for routing breaks part of the above firewall rules (blocking several ports by incoming interface) in a fairly unsolvable way.

In a microcosm, this is one of the problems of ipv6. It would be rather awesome if two people sharing the same wire (cable modems, anyone?) could route to each other with a minimum of hops and inherent latency.

To edit this page, submit a pull request to the Github repository.
RSS feed

Recent News & Articles

Mar 12, 2017 Wiki page
Make-Wifi-Fast Project
Mar 10, 2017 Wiki page
What Can I Do About Bufferbloat?
Feb 10, 2017 Wiki page
More about Bufferbloat
Dec 27, 2016 Wiki page
RRUL Chart Explanation

Find us elsewhere

Bufferbloat Mailing Lists
#bufferbloat on Twitter
Google+ group
Archived Bufferbloat pages from the Wayback Machine


Comcast Research Innovation Fund
Nlnet Foundation
Shuttleworth Foundation

Bufferbloat Related Projects

Congestion Control Blog
Lede Project (OpenWrt)
Flent Network Test Suite
The Cake shaper

Network Performance Related Resources

Jim Gettys' Blog - The chairman of the Fjord
Toke's Blog - Karlstad University's work on bloat
Voip Users Conference - Weekly Videoconference mostly about voip
Candelatech - A wifi testing company that "gets it".