Cake is the rollup of 3 years of deployment experience of the htb + fq_codel based sqm-scripts SQM for aqm/fq/qos inbound and outbound bufferbloat management. For input into the design and implementation, please join the cake mailing list . For an alternative approach to inbound traffic management, see Bobbie.
Slides from a recent talk on Cake, at Battlemesh v8: attachment:cake-battlemesh-v8.pdf
This makes the hash collision problem Toke pointed out in fq_codel at the ietf meeting previous go away even for REALLY large numbers of flows. We note that this is not a panacea in that it means that the codel portion of the algorithm gets less chance to run and proves problematic… (cake stablizes at a much higher delay than we would like right now) but it does mean that we get way better flow isolation in general, which may lead to a more ideal aqm implementation.
Is much “tighter” than htb - uses about 30% less cpu on low end hardware (don’t take that as a final or even accurate figure!) , and is less “bursty”.
Many ethernet device drivers and tcp stacks bulk up multiple packets for one destination into a offloaded “superpacket” that is handed off to the hardware. This dynamic range of 1000x1 is very hard on aqm and fq algorithms which seek to have minimal drops and maximal fairness.
And yet, at higher rates (>100mbit), present day hardware requires those offloads be present in order to achieve maximum utilization.
So cake, when shaping to a lower rate than gigE, will peel apart large superpackets back into packets again, and thus fq and aqm them better than fq_codel did.
Preliminary indications are that not doing GRO “peeling” is where the first generation of fq_codel enabled 802.11ac routers went wrong in their QoS systems.
tc qdisc add dev eth2 root cake bandwidth 50mbit Usage: ... cake [ bandwidth RATE | unlimited* | autorate_ingress ] [ rtt TIME | datacentre | lan | metro | regional | internet* | oceanic | satellite | interplanetary ] [ besteffort | squash | precedence | diffserv8 | diffserv4* ] # diffserv variants including none [ flowblind | srchost | dsthost | hosts | flows* ] # hash algorithm on what fields [ atm | noatm* ] [ overhead N | conservative | raw* ] (* marks defaults) (squash) removes DSCP from packets and applies 'besteffort' to the result (flowblind) gives pure single queue codel aqm behavior, useful for testing the new codel implementation (autorate_ingress) is very experimental
(so it cannot be easily gamed)
(drop then mark for an immediate congestion signal)
(tighter recovery algorithm, more accurate invsqrt, earlier kick in on overload)
Despite these new algorithms tightly controlling the queue size, practical circumstances (available memory) and resistance to attacks requires there be some outside limit at which point the qdisc arbitrarily drops packets. fq_codel, codel, pie, and others all use a per packet limit.
Per packet limits has a dynamic range of roughly 1000x1 (64k to 64 bytes). This is really hard to cope with. A small limit might run you short on keeping the device fed (for small packets) yet completely overwhelm the memory on big (offloaded with GRO/TSO/GSO) packets.
A sensible byte limit, on the other hand has a dynamic range of about 4x1 in the worst case (each packet has about 256 bytes of overhead associated with it, so a 64 byte packet is 5x bigger than it should be, but a 1500 byte packet only a few percent). Additionally, when cake is handed a bandwidth argument, it is possible to come up with a reasonable size based on the BDP and a few heuristics, to come up with a reasonable outer limit. To what degree cake is coming up with reasonable outer limits right now, is still a matter of debate and coding.
The initial cake-overhead patch included only “raw” and “conservative” shortcut keywords, alongside the numeric “overhead” parameter for experts. I’ve now worked out an extended set of keywords which, I think, takes care of all the normal cases.
There are eight new keywords which deal with the basic ADSL configurations. These switch on ATM cell-framing compensation, and set the overhead based on the raw IP packet as a baseline.
Note that “pppoa-llc” is not a typo - it really doesn’t involve SNAP, and is thus a little more compact than if it did.
Two more new keywords deal with the basic VDSL2 configurations. Again, the overheads use IP as a baseline, but this time ATM cell-framing is turned off.
For those interested in shaping ethernet links the following keywords are defined.
ether-phy (20) - pre-amble, inter-frame gap
ether-all (24) - pre-amble, inter-frame gap & Frame Check Sequence
The final three keywords are not for standalone use, but act as modifiers to some previous keyword. They can be specified more than once, which is probably only useful for “ether-vlan”.
Based on the efforts of the ietf “Dart” working group, we have a rough set of classifications that make sense into 4 bins of priority, but getting this right, too, is a matter of debate. Certainly 8 seems like overkill. Pure precedence is in cake as an option also, based on the CSX-CS7 set of priorities but it should not be used in a modern diffserv installation.
The only way we know how to “fix” bittorrent is to classify it somewhat, somehow, as “background”.
sqm-scripts used 3 tiers of priority pretty successfully as does free.fr. - de-prioritization seems a good idea, prioritization not so much.
We have been discussing/working on this for about two years. Work stalled out on the first two versions in september 2014 (after we hit some major snags also). Jonathan could not work for free anymore either… As of April 2015, he is now committed to 2-3 months work (via a donation), and we are back to making some serious progress.
At line (native) rate cake uses more cpu than what fq_codel does.
At a shaped rate, it does much better than htb + fq_codel does. There are a lot of easy cpu speed up mods left to make, but we prefer to work on fixing two problematic bits of codel right now… adding other features, and fixing bugs.
Cake is largely Jonathan Morton’s work, based on extensive discussions with Dave Taht, Toke, and Eric Dumazet and fragments of the various codel and fq_codel stuff Dave Taht had done over the last 3 years. In particular, the set associative hash, shaper, and diffserv code innovations are all Jonathan’s contributions.
Here are tons of statistics tested live on a comcast 115Mbit/12Mbit connection. You can see both drops and marks (as the new overload protection kicks in).
The Pk delay is the ewma of the delay being experienced by the fat flow.
Av is average. sp is the delay experienced by “sparse” flows - typical
voip dns etc that fq_codel already did so well that we have always
found hard to measure.
You do not see anything real for pk,av, etc because the tc dump was taken after the test.
The “way” stuff is related to the 8 way set associative hash. We never had a collision on this test - it is going to take serious work to create a test that will create one!
qdisc cake3 8021: root refcnt 2 bandwidth 115Mbit diffserv4 flows Sent 854846030 bytes 601627 pkt (dropped 3, overlimits 502755 requeues 0) backlog 0b 0p requeues 0 Class 0 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 rate 115Mbit 107812Kbit 86250Kbit 28750Kbit target 5.0ms 5.0ms 5.0ms 5.0ms interval 105.0ms 105.0ms 105.0ms 105.0ms Pk delay 28us 165us 171us 0us Av delay 2us 3us 4us 0us Sp delay 0us 2us 3us 0us pkts 279494 6 6 0 way inds 0 0 0 0 way miss 126 2 4 0 way cols 0 0 0 0 bytes 854849821 702 763 0 drops 3 0 0 0 marks 65 0 0 0
I note that this is 1 minute of the rrul test to get this drop/mark rate. It is useful to get a feel for what is a “good” drop rate is by plunking these into a spreadsheet and to factor in the actual bandwidth and bytes transferred, AND to use varying numbers of flows. Most people do not have intuition here.
qdisc cake3 8020: root refcnt 9 bandwidth 12Mbit diffserv4 flows Sent 89763694 bytes 252935 pkt (dropped 29, overlimits 446956 requeues 0) backlog 0b 0p requeues 0 Class 0 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 rate 12Mbit 11250Kbit 9Mbit 3Mbit target 5.0ms 5.0ms 5.0ms 6.1ms interval 105.0ms 105.0ms 105.0ms 106.1ms Pk delay 6.4ms 33us 0us 5.4ms Av delay 1.7ms 2us 0us 1.7ms Sp delay 0us 0us 0us 0us pkts 50193 86214 0 98744 way inds 0 0 0 0 way miss 7 137 0 6 way cols 0 0 0 0 bytes 14462333 52805488 0 22497221 drops 20 1 0 8 marks 294 86 0 621 qdisc ingress ffff: parent ffff:fff1 ---------------- Sent 830112863 bytes 601877 pkt (dropped 0, overlimits 0 requeues 0) backlog 0b 0p requeues 0
We are attempting to make it easier for people to test cake on pre-existing kernels. Please note that cake is under heavy development. The API might change. The code might change. If it breaks, you get to keep both pieces.
IF you have kernel source installed to leverage, adding cake is as easy as
git clone https://github.com/dtaht/sch_cake.git cd sch_cake make; sudo make install
FIXME: How do you install kernel headers on various linuxes?
NOTE: I did not take the time to get the linux version checks exactly correct, but did manage to get it to compile on linux 3.13 and linux 3.18 without error, on x86_64, in the current git tree.
To use it properly, you will also need to build and install the iproute with cake support:
git clone https://github.com/dtaht/tc-adv cd tc-adv ./configure make sudo make install #Then: tc qdisc add dev whatever root cake # and whatever options
We had found that a ton of edge cases involving very low (sub 2.5mbit) bandwidths, and PPPoe and ATM framing compensation were bothersome in fq_codel, so cake automagically does some of that, although the atm compensation is untested at present.
You may need to do a modprobe of sch_cake and of act_mirred, and of other modules (u32?) for this to work. Also, on many devices, it used to be VERY helpful to turn off GRO on ALL ethernet devices, and TSO and GSO on the outbound device. We added “peeling” to fix this so you no longer have to turn off offloads like thiese.
There are numerous other traps for the unwary, documented in Best practices for benchmarking Codel and FQ Codel - we are trying to make those traps less dangerous in cake, for example, we came up with a way to “peel” apart TSO/GSO/GRO offloads to deal with packets rather than superpackets.
While we have published some mods to make cake easy to configure under the existing sqm-scripts (cake eliminates many, many lines of code there) and gui, they have not quite made it out to openwrt yet.
Configuration of outbound is easy, the simplest default setting is:
modprobe sch_cake modprobe act_mirred tc qdisc add dev eth2 root cake bandwidth XXmbit # where XX is your mbit. You can do kbit also. substitute your outbound interface for eth2.
If you are interested in what pure AQM alone accomplishes, try the “flowblind” option. If you do not want classification, specify “besteffort”. IF you want to run at line rate for your device, relying instead on backpressure from the ethernet driver (and hopefully BQL) don’t specify the bandwidth.
Inbound is mildly more difficult because you have to setup an IFB (intermediate functional block) device, and re-route inbound traffic to it. A simple configuration (sqm-scripts example below) would be:
ip link add name ifb4eth2 type ifb tc qdisc del dev eth2 ingress tc qdisc add dev eth2 handle ffff: ingress tc qdisc del dev ifb4eth2 root tc qdisc add dev ifb4eth2 root cake bandwidth 110000kbit besteffort ifconfig ifb4eth2 up # if you don't bring the device up your connection will lock up on the next step. tc filter add dev eth2 parent ffff: protocol all prio 10 u32 match u32 0 0 flowid 1:1 action mirred egress redirect dev ifb4eth2
We have generally found that most diffserv inbound priorities are wrong, so we tend to specify besteffort here, and may add a “squash” option directly to cake to remove the diffserv markings entirely.
d at nuc-client:~/git/iproute2-cake$ ./tc/tc -s qdisc show dev eth0 qdisc cake 8002: root refcnt 2 unlimited diffserv4 flows Sent 13895939355 bytes 9605458 pkt (dropped 194, overlimits 0 requeues 0) backlog 318798b 26p requeues 0 Class 0 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 rate 0bit 0bit 0bit 0bit target 5.0ms 5.0ms 5.0ms 5.0ms interval 105.0ms 105.0ms 105.0ms 105.0ms Pk delay 6.0ms 5.0ms 1us 2.3ms Av delay 1.5ms 1.4ms 0us 654us Sp delay 317us 201us 0us 141us pkts 128068 316663 56 236467 way inds 0 0 0 0 way miss 3 40 3 7 way cols 0 0 0 0 bytes 45317244 11531124242 5524 2320607748 drops 173 21 0 0 marks 0 0 0 0
A problem I have is in reconciling the Flent plots which hit a minimum of 2ms for sparse flows, where I typically see ~200us delay in the qdiscs themselves. I have generally not cared at all about about anything less than 3ms prior to now.
qdisc cake 8003: root refcnt 2 bandwidth 920Mbit diffserv4 flows Sent 2298586363 bytes 1826648 pkt (dropped 45, overlimits 474931 requeues 0) backlog 468331b 25p requeues 0 Class 0 Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 rate 920Mbit 862500Kbit 690Mbit 230Mbit target 5.0ms 5.0ms 5.0ms 5.0ms interval 105.0ms 105.0ms 105.0ms 105.0ms Pk delay 4.6ms 3.2ms 0us 5.2ms Av delay 1.5ms 1.2ms 0us 1.6ms Sp delay 303us 290us 0us 191us pkts 110498 111953 0 181478 way inds 0 0 0 0 way miss 3 31 0 6 way cols 0 0 0 0 bytes 347279080 1377499174 0 574954712 drops 14 0 0 31 marks 0 0 0 0
Have I mentioned how much I hate offloads? see the backlog relative to the number of “packets”.
Still, I do think developing this out of tree will help a lot, after we
get kernel versions straightened out more. Next up is trying to get
it to build on openwrt, also out of tree.
This is relatively easy and recently became a lot easier due to a couple of package handling bugs being fixed. Also as of 13 Jul 2015 Toke pushed CAKE aware versions of some required utilities.
First you will need to install the OpenWrt source and build environment, fuller details including required dependencies can be found at http://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/howto/buildroot.exigence
Briefly to clone the latest version of OpenWrt, known as ‘trunk’ into a subdirectory ‘openwrt’ of your current directory:
git clone git://git.openwrt.org/openwrt.git
OpenWrt divides software components into packages and combines groups of packages into feeds. For CAKE we’ll need to add an extra feed as well as add all the packages from the standard feeds. Install the standard packages:
cd openwrt ./scripts/feeds update -a ./scripts/feeds install -a
We’re still missing the all important kernel ‘cake’ algorithm packet scheduling module, and whilst we’re here we might as well have the ‘pie’ algorithm. Also a ‘cake’ aware version of tc is needed. There are OpenWrt suitable packages in Dave Taht’s ‘ceropackages’ package feed. Many packages exist in this feed so we have to be careful to only install those required.
cp feeds.conf.default feeds.conf echo "src-git cero https://github.com/dtaht/ceropackages-3.10.git" >>feeds.conf
Now we need to tell OpenWrt to get this feed and install the required packages:
kmod-sched-cake & fq_pie are the qdisc kernel modules, tc-adv contains a patched version of ‘tc’ that understands the supported options to those modules. Suitably up-to-date sqm-scripts packages are already in OpenWrt’s package feed.
./scripts/feeds update -a ./scripts/feeds install -p cero kmod-sched-cake kmod-sched-fq_pie tc-adv
At this point we’re building OpenWrt proper so you’ll have to take the options appropriate for your target hardware. Run ‘make menuconfig’ and select things as required. As an example, for the Archer C7 v2 as I have I would select/navigate the following menu/options as a bare minimum:
Target Profile -> TP-LINK Archer C5/C7 Luci -> Collections -> Luci (*) Applications -> luci-app-sqm (*) Kernel Modules -> Network Support -> kmod-sched-cake & kmod-sched-fq_pie (*) Network -> Routing & Redirection -> tc-adv (*)
Exit menuconfig, saving your configuration, then run ‘make’ to build OpenWrt. You’ll find binary images to flash to your router in the bin/‘platform’ subdirectory.
If you’re using some form of ipv6 in ipv4 tunneling then consider adding
“option tos ‘inherit’” to the ‘wan6’ interface definition in
/etc/config/network. This will copy the DSCP classification from the encapsulated IPv6 packets to the encapsulating IPv4 packets and help cake classify the contained flows into the correct tin. Enjoy! - Kevin D-B